Limestone’s a common sedimentary rock –it’s made from calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate is precipitated in shallow marine conditions with the help of biological activity, most commonly algae, but also by the many invertebrates that form shells. This material then settles to the ocean bottom as a lime-rich mud and if the conditions are right, eventually becomes rock.
Compared with many other sedimentary rocks, limestone deposits can accumulate pretty rapidly –about 1 meter per thousand years in many cases –and even two or three times that under optimal circumstances. These rates are for uncompacted sediment, and a great deal of compaction occurs as the sediment turns into rock. Additionally, if the deposit is to accumulate to any significant thickness, the crust on which it is deposited must also subside.
So all this limestone in Death Valley was deposited as a bunch of horizontal layers in a shallow marine setting –not too deep, or light wouldn’t penetrate to the seafloor to allow photosynthesis –key to the ecosystem that produced the calcium carbonate in the first place. And since it was deposited, it’s been uplifted and tilted and eroded.