geologictimepics

Geology and Geologic Time through Photographs

Archive for the category “Geology”

Touring the geologic map of the United States

Published in 1974 by the US Geological Survey, the geologic map of the United States beautifully lays out our country’s geology. If you’re stuck at home these days –as most of us are—you can gaze at this masterpiece and go anywhere! USAGeolMap-allllr

S Willamette Valley

Southern Willamette Valley. Eugene’s in the center of the map

At their simplest, geologic maps read like road maps: they tell you what rock unit or recent deposit forms the ground at a given place. So right here where I am in Eugene, Oregon, I can see that I live on “Q” –which stretches north up the Willamette Valley. “Q” stands for Quaternary-age material (2.5 million years to present), which is typically alluvial material –or sediment deposited by rivers and streams.  Just to the south of me lie a variety of older volcanic and sedimentary rocks. You can look them up in the map’s legend using their symbols. Here’s Rule #0: white areas, being mostly alluvium, mark low areas; colorful areas indicate bedrock, so are typically  higher in elevation.

The beauty of this map is that you can see the whole country at once, and using just a few rules, can immediately glean the underlying structure of a region.

For any of the maps, photos, and diagrams here, you can see a larger size if you click on the image.

x-cut block diagramlr

Rule 1: Rock bodies without internal contacts appear as color swatches (or “blobs”) as seen on the block diagram below. These rocks include intrusive igneous, undifferentiated metamorphic, and flat-lying sedimentary rock. (If you’re not sure what geologic contacts are, please see my recent post on the nature of geologic contacts.)

Rule 2: Rock bodies with internal contacts appear as stripes, which you can see from the diagram above and the photos below. These rocks are typically inclined sedimentary rocks –simply because the contacts between different rock units appear as lines where they intersect the Earth’s surface.  And notice that the steeper the rocks dip (their angle of inclination), the narrower the stripe becomes. In fact, the outcrop widths of vertically dipping beds equals their thickness!

aerial dipping beds

Aerial view of tilted Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary rock at the edge of the Front Range, Colorado

Rule 3. You really can read a map like a cross-section –in fact, maps are basically the same things as cross-sections except they represent horizontal slices of the crust rather than vertical ones. As an example, you get an incomplete geologic history if you only use the cross-section in the block diagram above. The map view actually has all the information because it not only depicts the fold in map view, but also the fault.

Rule 4. Folded rocks typically appear on maps as zig-zags, or in the case of the single anticline in the block diagram above, as a half zig-zag. You get a full zig-zag if you have a paired anticline and syncline, like in the diagram below. The map expression results from the hinge of the fold being inclined –or plunging—rather than simply being horizontal. plunging folds

And here’s an air photo of a plunging fold in the Montana Fold-Thrust Belt.

Plunging anticline, SW Montana

Aerial view of north-plunging anticline in the Fold-Thrust Belt of SW Montana

Time Scale2020lr

Geologic Time Scale. If you don’t know the geologic time scale, click on the image to the side to see it at full size (like all the images here). As far as reading geologic maps, it’s very helpful to know the time scale and the abbreviations of the different time periods. So, “X, W, Y, Z” are all Precambrian (X=Archean; W, Y, Z=progressively younger Proterozoic); “Pz” means Paleozoic (541-252 million years ago), “Mz” means Mesozoic (252-66 million years ago) “Cz” means Cenozoic (66 million years ago to present). Of course, the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic have further subdivisions with their own abbreviations that you can see on the full-size image.

 

The map.

boxes and regionslrNow for some features on the geologic map! This post is just an introduction, so I’ll stick to the boxed areas to illustrate some geological relations –and maybe throw in a few photos along the way. Then I’ll briefly discuss the localities shown in blue –and the rest of the map is for your own entertainment!

1. SnakeRPlain, IdahoBathlrMap 1. Snake River Plain and Yellowstone. The Snake River Plain, beneath that long flat stretch of Interstate 84, is covered by Quaternary age basalt flows. The landscape is flat because the lavas are flat –and so they show up as a big swatch of pink. Compare it to the ribbon-like bands to the north and south, mostly steeply inclined, folded, and faulted sedimentary rock of the Fold-Thrust Belt. The white stripes between the ribbons mark valleys (they’re filled with alluvial deposits) so we can infer that the ribbons, which mark bedrock, are mountains–which they are.

Notice how the Snake River Plain cuts across the ribbons of the Fold-Thrust Belt. It’s much younger: the lavas all erupted over the top of the older, deformed rock. You can actually see that relation if you drive US20 along the north side of Craters of the Moon National Monument.

And just beyond the Snake River Plain to the northeast, you can see Yellowstone, marked by rhyolites that also cover the older, surrounding rocks. Yellowstone is on trend with the Snake River Plain because they are both products of the southwestern drift of the North American Plate over the Yellowstone Hot Spot. Lying beneath the Snake River Plain Basalts are former rhyolitic calderas like Yellowstone. You can see some of these rhyolites at Shoshone Falls in Twin Falls, Idaho.

Shoshone Falls, Idaho (Pan)

Shoshone Falls spills over light-colored rhyolites. Rocks on the skyline are Snake River Plain Basalt, Idaho

Then there’s the Idaho Batholith, shown as the green swatch, which formed because of subduction along the western margin of North America during the Cretaceous Period. It’s of about the same age and origin as the Sierra Nevada in California.

2. Basin and RangelrMap 2. The Basin and Range Province. Described by the geologist Clarence Dutton in 1884 as “An army of caterpillars”, the Basin and Range consists of alternating basins, shown by the white color for alluvium, and ranges, shown by the colors, indicating various types of bedrock.

Geologically, the province is varied and complex, and I can’t begin to do it justice here except to say that much of the modern day landscape is a product of crustal extension –so many of the ranges are bound by normal faults, in a manner akin to the illustrations below.  It’s quite a wonderful part of the world and includes Death Valley, my go-to place for all things geology.

Basin and Range

Aerial view across the Basin and Range Province in Nevada.

Tilted-F-blocks-and-DV

Tilted fault blocks. The photo of Death Valley region as tilted fault blocks coincides with the inset on the cross-section.

And notice how the southeastern part of Map 2 includes the ribbon-like patterns of the Fold Thrust Belt –and southeast of there, the broad swales of the Colorado Plateau! (Map 3).

Map 3. Colorado Plateau. In preparation for a field trip to the Colorado Plateau, my grad school thesis advisor described the region as “an island of tranquility surrounded by tumultuous Cenozoic deformation.” I’ll never forget that –so accurate a description and such flowery language!3. ColoPlateaulr

170703-20

Aerial view of incised meanders of the Green River cutting through flat-lying rock, Utah.

From the map, you can see that the region is marked by wide color swatches edged by narrow ribbons. The swatches mark approximately flat-lying sedimentary rocks and many of the ribbon-like edges mark monoclines, where the rock flexes from flat-lying to steeply dipping to flat-lying again, like the photo below of the San Rafael Swell. The monoclines formed in the early Cenozoic because of faulting in the underlying basement rock.

Monocline on the Colorado Plateau, Utah

Aerial view of the southern San Rafael Swell, Utah

In some places, such as Black Mesa (location “a”) in northern Arizona, you can see the ribbons surrounding the swatch. These areas typically mark individual plateaus, capped by flat-lying rocks with older rocks exposed on the slopes below. And in the Grand Canyon, the ribbon-like patterns similarly form by older rocks exposed downwards towards the river.

3a. GrandCyn+ pic

Geologic map and and photo of the Grand Canyon, AZ

And those little red dots? Those are bodies of intrusive igneous rock, including the La Sal, Abajo, and Henry mountains that intruded the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks at various times during the Cenozoic.

2734

La Sal Mountains rise over flat-lying Paleozoic and Mesozoic rock of Canyonlands National Park, Utah

 

4. BlackHillslrMap 4. The Black Hills rise dramatically from the western plains because they’re a structural dome, a fold in which the rocks dip outwards in all directions, away from the oldest rock in the core. You can see that the rocks get younger out from the core if you click on the image to see it at full size. The core consists of bluish-gray rocks labeled “X” –which indicates an age from 2.5-1.6 billion years and the surrounding rocks are labeled “lPz” then “uPz” then “Tr”, “J”, and “K” to indicate “lower Paleozoic”, “Upper Paleozoic”, “Triassic”, “Jurassic”, and “Cretaceous” respectively. Notice how the rocks dip the steepest on the east side of the dome.

Dome

Now if you look at the state of Michigan on the USA map, you can see that it’s the same thing but in reverse. It’s a structural basin, with the youngest rock in the core!

Map 5. Transect across the Appalachians. Starting near the Ohio-Pennsylvania border, you can see that rock is pretty flat-lying because it consists of lots of irregular swatches. The irregularity mostly comes from topographic changes that expose different rocks at different elevations, in a manner similar to some of the features in Map 3. But moving eastward, you hit the Valley and Ridge Province of the Appalachians: long ridges of folded Paleozoic sedimentary rock.5. NAppalachiantransectlre

Sed-08

Channel deposit in the Triassic Newark Group, Connecticut.

And then you hit the teal-colored Newark Group, a series of Triassic sedimentary rocks deposited in basins as North America rifted away from Africa. It’s part of the Piedmont, a  section of the Appalachians that’s of lower topographic relief than the Valley and Ridge Province, but much more variable in its bedrock geology. It even includes fragments of oceanic lithosphere and mantle, shown in the navy blue color, and Proterozoic metamorphic rock, labeled “Ygn”.

Finally, you reach the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Coastal Plain (shown in green), deposited after the Appalachians had formed and largely eroded. These rocks, as well as the overlying Tertiary rocks are relatively undeformed. Notice how the basal contact of the green “lK” cuts off the contacts within the Piedmont!

5a. NAppalachianCloseupThis inset of a close-up of the Valley and Ridge shows a classic example of the zig-zag pattern that results from plunging folds. You can determine the direction the folds plunge by looking at the ages of the rocks: anticlines contain the oldest rock in their cores whereas synclines contain the youngest rocks in their cores. Because anticlines plunge in the direction of their “noses” (where the outcrop pattern zigs or zags), we can infer that these folds are plunging to the northeast.

Map 6. Another view of the Appalachian Coastal Plain. Here’s a great example of a regional, angular unconformity, between the undeformed Cretaceous and younger rocks of the Coastal Plain and the highly deformed rocks of the Appalachians.6. S Appalachianslr

And of course, there’s so much more!

You can download a full-sized version of this map from the United States Geological Survey at https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70136641. It comes in 3 parts: West half, east half, legend.

In the meantime, here are some of my favorite other features:

The Columbia River Basalt Group (orange swatch) that erupted between 16-6 million years ago and covers some 70,000 square miles of Washington, Oregon, and western Idaho.

Basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group, Imnaha Canyon,

Lava flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group in eastern Oregon

The Lewis Thrust along the east edge Glacier National Park. The fault brings Proterozoic sedimentary rock of the “Belt Supergroup” over Cretaceous sandstone. It’s a very low angle fault so displays a very irregular trace as it winds in and out of the valleys, kind of like a contour line.

color reversal: KODAK UNIVERSAL K14. SBA settings neutral SBA off, color SBA on

Lewis Thrust, which lies just above the tree line, places Proterozoic rock over Cretaceous rock.

The Ogallala Formation (yellow swatch), only about 6-2 million years old and up to 1000 feet in thickness, covers more than 170,000 square miles of the Great Plains –and provides drinking and irrigation water to the vast majority of people in the region.

Deposits of the Mississippi River (gray). From the Mississippi delta all the way to Cairo, Illinois, the river’s deposited Quaternary alluvium on top rocks as old as Eocene.

Meander loops on Mississippi River, Louisiana

Aerial view of meander loops on Mississippi River, Louisiana

Woohoo!


Incidentally, all the photos shown here are available for free download from my geology photo website. It has a search function that accesses more than 3500 images I’ve taken over more than 35 years.

 

Where rocks touch: geologic contacts

Geologic contacts are the surfaces where two different rocks touch each other –where they make contact. And there are only three types: depositional, intrusive, or fault. Contacts are one of the basic concerns in field geology and in creating geologic maps –and geologic maps are critical to comprehending the geology of a given area. For those of you out there who already know this stuff, I’ll do my best to spice it up with some nice photos. For those of you who don’t? This post is for you!

Depositional contacts are those where a sedimentary or volcanic rock was deposited on an older rock (of any type). Intrusive contacts are those where igneous rocks intrude older rock (of any type). Fault contacts are… faults! –surfaces where two rocks of any type have moved into their current positions next to each other along a fault.

In a cross-sectional sketch they may look like this:x-sxnlr

And here are some photos. Click on the image to see it at full size.Depositional contact and windows,  Jurassic Entrada Fm (red) ove

So how do you tell them apart in the field? If the actual contact surface isn’t exposed –which is usually the case– you have to use some indirect observations. Here are some general rules that can help. Of course, each “rule” has exceptions, described later. Read more…

Aerial geology photos– favorites from commercial flights of 2019

I always try for window seats when flying and I always try to shoot photos out the window –with varying results! So often, the window’s badly scratched, there are clouds, it’s hazy, the sun angle’s wrong –there are myriad factors that can make good photography almost impossible from a commercial jet. Last year though, I had a few amazing flights with clear skies and a great window seat –and I’ve now loaded nearly 100 images onto my website for free download. Here are 10 of my favorites, in no particular order. You can click on them to see them at a larger size. They’re even bigger on my website.

Mt. Shasta at sunset. Volumetrically, the biggest of the Cascade Volcanoes, Mt. Shasta last erupted between 2-300 years ago –and it’s spawned over 70 mudflows in the past 1000 years. From the photo, you can see how the volcano’s actually a combination of at least 3 volcanoes, including Shastina, which erupted about 11,000 years ago.

Mt. Shasta at sunset, California

Aerial view of Mt. Shasta, a Cascades stratovolcano in northern California.

If you want to see more aerials of Mt. Shasta (shot during the day) –and from a small plane, go to the search page on my website and type in “Shasta”.

 

Meteor Crater, Arizona.  Wow –I’ve ALWAYS wanted to get a photo of Meteor Crater from the air –and suddenly, on a flight from Phoenix to Denver, there it was!

Meteor Crater, Arizona

Aerial view of Meteor Crater, Arizona

Meteor Crater, also called Barringer Crater, formed by the impact of a meteorite some 50,000 years ago. It measures 3900 feet in diameter and about 560 feet deep. The meteorite, called the Canyon Diablo Meteorite, was about 50 meters across.

 

Dakota Hogback and Colorado Front Range, near Morrison, Colorado. Same flight as Meteor Crater –and another photo I’d longed to take. It really isn’t the prettiest photo, BUT, it shows the Cretaceous Dakota Hogback angling from the bottom left of the photo northwards along the range and Red Rocks Amphitheater in the center –then everything behind Red Rocks, including the peaks of Rocky Mountain National Park in the background, consist of Proterozoic basement rock.

Hogback and Colorado Front Range

Aerial view of hogback of Cretaceous Dakota Formation and Colorado Front Range.

 

Distributary channels on delta, Texas Gulf Coast. I just thought this one was really pretty. Geologically, it shows how rivers divide into many distributary channels when they encounter the super low gradients of deltas. And whoever thought that flying into Houston could be so exciting!

Distributary channels on delta, Texas Gulf Coast

Distributary channels on delta, Texas Gulf Coast

 


Meander bends on the Mississippi River.
My mother lives in Florida, so I always fly over the Mississippi River when I go visit –but I was never able to take a decent photo until my return trip last October, when the air was clear, and our flight path passed just north of New Orleans. Those sweeping arms of each meander are about 5 miles long!

Meander bends on Mississippi River, Louisiana

Meander bends on the Mississippi River floodplain, Louisiana

 

Salt Evaporators, San Francisco Bay. Flying into San Francisco is always great because you get to see the incredible evaporation ponds near the south end of the bay. I always love the colors, caused by differing concentrations of algae –which respond to differences in salinity. And for some reason, salt deposits always spark my imagination. Salt covers the floor of Death Valley, a place where I do most of my research, and Permian salt deposits play a big role in the geology of much of southeastern Utah, another place I know and love.

Salt evaporators, San Francisco Bay, California

Salt evaporators, San Francisco Bay, California

 

Bonneville Salt Flats and Newfoundland Mountains, Utah. And then there are the Bonneville Salt Flats! They’re so vast –how I’d love the time to explore them. They formed by evaporation of Pleistocene Lake Bonneville, the ancestor of today’s Great Salt Lake. When the climate was wetter during the Ice Age, Lake Bonneville was practically an inland sea –and this photo shows just a small part of it.

Bonneville Salt Flats and Newfoundland Mtns, Utah

Aerial view of Bonneville Salt Flats and Newfoundland Mountains

 

Stranded meander loop on the Colorado River. I like this photo because it speaks to the evolution of this stretch of the Colorado River. Just left of center, you can see an old meander loop –and it’s at a much higher elevation than today’s channel. At one time, the Colorado River flowed around that loop, but after breaching the divide and stranding it as an oxbow, it proceeded to cut its channel deeper and left the oxbow at a higher elevation.

Stranded meander loop, Colorado River, Colorado

Stranded meander loop (oxbow) on the Colorado River, eastern Utah

 

San Andreas fault zone and San Francisco. See those skinny lakes running diagonally through the center of the photo? They’re the Upper and Lower Crystal Springs Reservoirs –and they’re right on the San Andreas Fault. And you can see just how close San Francisco is to the fault.  As the boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates, its total displacement is about 200 miles. See this previous post for more photos of the San Andreas fault.

San Andreas fault zone and San Francisco

San Andreas fault zone and San Francisco

 

And my favorite: Aerial view of the Green River flowing through the Split Mountain Anticline –at Dinosaur National Monument, Utah-Colorado. Another photo I’ve so longed to shoot –but didn’t have the opportunity until last year.

The Green River cuts right across the anticline rather than flowing around it. It’s either an antecedent river, which cut down across the fold as it grew –or a superposed one, having established its channel in younger, more homogeneous rock before cutting down into the harder, folded rock. You can also see how the anticline plunges westward (left) because that’s the direction of its “nose” –or the direction the fold limbs come together. The quarry, for Dinosaur National Monument, which you can visit and see dinosaur bones in the original Jurassic bedrock, is in the hills at the far lower left corner of the photo.

Split Mountain Anticline, Utah-Colo

Split Mountain anticline and Green River, Utah-Colorado

 

So these are my ten favorites from 2019. Thanks for looking! There are 88 more on my website, at slightly higher resolutions and for free download. They include aerials of the Sierra Nevada and Owens Valley, the Colorado Rockies, including the San Juan Volcanic Field, incised rivers on the Colorado Plateau, and even the Book Cliffs in eastern Colorado. Just go to my geology photo website, and in the search function type “aerial, 2019” –and 98 photos will pop up. Boom!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Smith Rock State Park –great geology at the edge of Oregon’s largest caldera

181016-55

Smith Rock, the Crooked River, and modern Cascade volcanoes from Misery Ridge.

The view from outside the small visitor center at Smith Rock State Park offers a landscape of contrasts. The parking lot, and nearby camping and picnic areas, are flat, underlain by the edge of a basaltic lava flow that drops off in a series of steps to a narrow canyon, some 120 feet (37 m) below. The Crooked River, which rises about 100 miles (162 km) away in the High Lava Plains, fills much of the canyon bottom. Across the canyon, tan cliffs and spires of tuff, another volcanic rock, soar overhead. Smith Rock itself forms a peninsula of this rock, enclosed by a hairpin bend of the Crooked River. The tuff erupted 29.5 million years ago in the largest volcanic eruption to occur entirely within Oregon. Read more…

Seeing some cool properties of water through the lens of its molecular structure

We all know the importance of water—our bodies are mostly water, we need it to survive, it’s the second most important ingredient in coffee… Geologically, it facilitates almost everything we know, from erosion to magma formation to rock fracture. I’m often struck by how so many of water’s unusual properties are determined by its chemistry and molecular structure –and in a very understandable way.

Waterfalls and cliff, New Zealand.

waterfalls in Fjordland, South Island, New Zealand.

Water molecules are polar
Many of water’s properties stem directly from its polar nature –and its polar nature comes right from its molecular structure. Here’s how. Read more…

Countertop Geology: Desperate for rocks? Visit a “granite” countertop store!

Where can you see some rocks? It’s winter and everything’s covered in snow –or you’re visiting family in some place where there’s virtually no bedrock exposed anywhere –or you’re simply stranded far from any good rocks in the center of a big city.IP18-0957c

Take yourself on a field trip to a granite countertop store! You might not see very much real granite, but you will see some other types: folded gneiss, pegmatite, amphibolite, quartzite, maybe even some granite… and a lot of amazing metamorphic and igneous features and faults –and they’re all polished and none are covered by vegetation.

I needed a rock fix the other day while visiting my mother in SW Florida –so I drove to a granite countertop store. And wow— I saw all sorts of great stuff, a lot of which related to faulting and fracturing, and a lot of it could go right into a geology textbook. In Florida!

IP18-0947e

Red garnet along with quartz and feldspar in gneiss -a metamorphic rock.

Read more…

Shaping of Landscape: A primer on weathering and erosion

Most of us love landscapes –and many of us find ourselves wondering how they came to look the way they do. In most cases, landscapes take their shape through the combined processes of weathering and erosion. While weathering and erosion constitute entire fields of study unto themselves, this primer outlines some of the basics—which pretty much underlie all the further details of how natural processes shape landscapes.

Incised meanders on the Green River, Utah

Aerial view of incised meanders of Green River, Utah.

Two definitions: weathering describes the in-place breakdown of rock material whereas erosion is the removal of that material. Basically, weathering turns solid rock into crud while erosion allows that crud to move away.

Weathering
Weathering processes fall into two categories: physical and chemical.  Physical weathering consists of the actual breakage of rock; any process that promotes breakage, be it enlargement of cracks, splitting, spalling, or fracturing, is a type of physical weathering.  Common examples include enlargement of cracks through freezing and thawing, enlargement of cracks during root growth, and splitting or spalling of rock from thermal expansion during fires.

Spalling of volcanic rock

Spalling of volcanic rock–likely from thermal expansion during a fire.

Read more…

Iceland –where you can walk a mid-Atlantic rift –and some other geology photos

While Iceland hosts an amazing variety of awesome landscapes, what stands out to me most are its incredible exposures of the Mid-Atlantic ridge. To the north and south, the ridge lies beneath some 2500m of water, forming a rift that separates the North American plate from the Eurasian plate. The rift spreads apart at a rate of some 2.5 cm/year, forming new oceanic lithosphere in the process. But in Iceland, you can actually walk around in it!

Iceland2geomapplates

Geologic map of Iceland as compiled from references listed below.

Read more…

Hug Point State Park, Oregon, USA –sea cliffs expose a Miocene delta invaded by lava flows

180728-124

Alcove and tidepool at Hug Point

Imagine, some 15 million years ago, basaltic lava flows pouring down a river valley to the coast –and then somehow invading downwards into the sandy sediments of its delta. Today, you can see evidence for these events in the sea cliffs near Hug Point in Oregon. There, numerous basalt dikes and sills invade awesome sandstone exposures of the Astoria Formation, some of which exhibit highly contorted bedding, likely caused by the invading lava. It’s also really beautiful, with numerous alcoves and small sea caves to explore. And at low to medium-low tides, you can walk miles along the sandy beach!

(Click on any of the images to see them at a larger size)

Read more…

Devil’s Punchbowl –Awesome geology on a beautiful Oregon beach

You could teach a geology course at Devil’s Punchbowl, a state park just north of Newport, Oregon. Along this half-mile stretch of beach and rocky tidepools, you see tilted sedimentary rocks, normal faults, an angular unconformity beneath an uplifted marine terrace, invasive lava flows, and of course amazing erosional features typical of Oregon’s spectacular coastline. And every one of these features tells a story. You can click on any of the images below to see them at a larger size.

180629-46ce

View southward from Cape Foulweather to the Devil’s Punchbowl.

 

180629-58ceThe rocks. They’re mostly shallow marine sandstones of the Astoria Formation, deposited in the early part of the Miocene, between about 16.5 to 22 million years ago. The rocks are tilted so you can walk horizontally into younger ones, which tend to be finer grained and more thinly bedded than the rocks below. This change in grain size suggests a gradual deepening of the water level through time. In many places, you can find small deposits of broken clam shells, likely stirred up and scattered during storms –and on the southern edge of the first headland north of the Punchbowl, you can find some spectacular soft-sediment deformation, probably brought on by submarine slumping. Later rock alteration from circulating hot groundwater caused iron sulfide minerals to crystallize within some of the sandstone. Read more…

Post Navigation

%d bloggers like this: